Clone Discrimination/Recognition in Entamoeba Featured on Cover of Scientific Journal

By Avelina Espinosa & Guillermo Paz-y-Miño-C

Our latest review on clone-clone discrimination/recognition in Entamoeba species has been featured on the cover of the Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology (JEUK-MIC, Volume 66, Issue 2, March-April 2019). This is the second time our work has made it to the cover of JEUK-MIC (the first time was back in 2012, coincidentally in the March-April Volume 59, Issue 2). Below are the links to the 2019 article, as well as the abstract and caption to the cover image.

Discrimination Experiments In Entamoeba and Evidence from other Protists Suggest Pathogenic Amebas Cooperate with Kin to Colonize Hosts and Deter Rivals. 2019. Avelina Espinosa & Guillermo Paz-y-Miño-C. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66(2): 354–368.

Entamoeba histolytica is one of the least understood protists in terms of taxa-, clone- and kin-discrimination/recognition ability. Yet, the capacity to tell apart same or self (clone/kin) from different or non-self (non-clone/non-kin) has long been demonstrated in pathogenic eukaryotes like Trypanosoma and Plasmodium, free-living social amebas (Dictyostelium, Polysphondylium), budding yeast (Saccharomyces), and in numerous bacteria and archaea (prokaryotes). Kin discrimination/recognition is explained under inclusive fitness theory; that is, the reproductive advantage that genetically closely related organisms (kin) can gain by cooperating preferably with one another (rather than with distantly related or unrelated individuals), minimizing antagonism and competition with kin, and excluding genetic strangers (or cheaters = non-cooperators that benefit from others’ investments in altruistic cooperation). In this review, we rely on the outcomes of in vitro pairwise discrimination/recognition encounters between seven Entamoeba lineages to discuss the biological significance of taxa-, clone- and kin-discrimination/recognition in a range of generalist and specialist species (close or distantly related phylogenetically). We then focus our discussion on the importance of these laboratory observations for E. histolytica‘s life cycle, host infestation, and implications of these features of the amebas’ natural history for human health (including mitigation of amebiasis).

About the Cover (above): Population bottlenecks (PB) in the life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica. (1) Upon host’s ingestion of contaminated food and water, ameba-cysts (dormant stage of the organism) will face the enzymatic milieu of the oral cavity (the mouth environment can be highly variable in temperature, concentration and mix of chemicals originated from diverse foods and the host’s own microbiota); (2) once reaching the stomach, the cysts will be exposed to high acidity, an inducer of severe ameba-cysts-population crashes; (3) cysts arrival at the small intestine, a more favorable environment for excystation; (4) not all amebas released during excystation will survive (simply due to intrinsic differential survival); (5) the colonization of the mucous layer on the small-intestine endothelium (nutrient-rich) will induce fast ameba clonal proliferation, but the successful population expansion will depend on variable conditions inside the host and be limited by the presence of different clone competitors (priority effects, see text); (5a) a potential trophozoite invasion of the colon in the large intestine (if it occurs) will be countered by the host’s immune responses (i.e. endothelium guarded by white-blood cells) and also by other ameba clones already established in the colon; (5b) in the uncommon cases of systemic infection, the liver, lungs and other organs (rarely the brain) can be colonized by amebas, which form abscesses, but abscess formation involves high mortality (both caused by host immunity and amebas’ own programmed cell death, PCD, imposed by abscess development); (from 5 to 6) prior to being eliminated from the body, the amebas must encyst, but not all cells will successfully form cysts; (7) and (8) cysts released into the external environment will face additional population crashes, although not directly associated with the fate of the host. To overcome the challenges of population demise (PBs) and stochastic opportunities to recover inside the host, amebas will need to associate and cooperate with clone members (kin); single amebas will not survive and associations or cooperation with genetic strangers will be maladaptive (prone to cheating). Dotted line indicates cases of direct elimination of cysts from the small intestine. ‒ EvoLiteracy © 2019

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Related Articles

Kin Recognition in Protists and Other Microbes: Genetics, Evolution, Behavior and Health

Symposium Kin-Discrimination in Protists just featured on JEUK

Kin Recognition or Kin Discrimination in Single-Celled Organisms – Protists

 

New Review of “Kin Recognition in Protists and Other Microbes”

By Guillermo Paz-y-Miño-C

Joachim “Jo” G. Frommen, a behavioral ecologist at the University of Bern, has written a review of our book “Kin Recognition in Protists and Other Microbes: Genetics, Evolution, Behavior and Health.” The article came out (as early view) in the Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology (JEUK-MIC). Before sharing details of Jo’s take on our work, here is an excerpt that captures his overall opinion:

This a highly timely and interesting book. People not being too familiar with microbiology will find it a fascinating and inspiring introduction into kin recognition in non-animal systems, which thereby challenges our thinking of underlying cognitive processes such as learning. Students of evolutionary biology will find it highly useful to read, for example, about the advent of multicellularity and sociality, leading to major transitions in evolution. Researchers in microbiology will appreciate a comprehensive summary of the field, with some additional dives into methodological details. Teachers will take advantage of the more than 120 detailed figures showing experimental setups, results and schematic diagrams, as well as of the great appendix linking to recent media resources that can be downloaded and included in lectures… This is a great book, which I can highly recommend.”

Well, first, thanks to Jo for a sharp and generous assessment. Avelina Espinosa (my coauthor) and I were quite pleased to see that Jo grasped the book precisely in the way we wrote it, plus the intention with which we put it together. We spent much time conceptualizing the chapters, their order and content, the illustrations and terminology boxes, the recapitulations of previous sections prior to “diving” deeper into more complex themes, and the didactic summaries at the end of each major subject.

Jo further summarizes the book as follows:

“…Chapter one (Kin recognition: Synopsis and the advent of protists models) sets the stage for the following chapters by explaining the most important terms and concepts of the kin recognition literature. It further highlights the importance of kin recognition in animals and introduces protists as promising model organisms. Chapter two (The genetics of kin recognition: from many cells to single cells) explains the genetic mechanisms of kin recognition (e.g. green beard effects) using red fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and social ameba (Dictyostelium discoideum) as examples. Chapter three (Can protists learn phenotypic cues to discriminate kin?) introduces learning as possible nongenetic kin recognition mechanisms. While this chapter is intentionally rather speculative, it is highly inspiring at the same time when thinking about definitions of terms like learning or memory. Chapter four (Entamoeba clone-recognition experiments: morphometrics, aggregative behavior, and cell-signaling characterization) introduces one of the authors’ own study systems, and how it might help us understanding clone recognition. Although the book focuses mainly on kin recognition in protists, the authors devote almost 100 pages of chapter five (The prokaryote´s tale) to show the impact of relatedness on the evolution, ecology and pathogenicity of prokaryotes. By doing so, they largely increase the breadth and information content of the book and open it to a wider audience…

Indeed, Jo got it just right. We purposely dedicated a comprehensive chapter to kin discrimination/recognition in bacteria (most case studies) and Archaea (a few case studies). In fact, there is so much excellent research in prokaryotes that a book dedicated entirely to them should be compiled (not by us, but by somebody else).

Jo continues:

[click to enlarge]

…Chapter six (Protists´ clonality, kinship and pathogenicity) illuminates the gregarious and social behaviors of pathogenic protists like Plasmodium or Trypanosoma. In chapter seven (Micro-biogeography: kinship and social/spatial structure) the authors focus on the local and global distributions of various protist species, with a special focus on Becking’s Everything is Everywhere hypothesis. Chapter eight (Multicellular aggregations: from single cells to many cells) highlights the importance of understanding the multifarious levels of protists’ social organization and cooperation, when aiming to understand the evolution of multicellularity more generally, which is considered as one of the Major Transitions in Evolution. The short ninth chapter (Conclusions and future directions) eventually provides a brief summary of the book and suggests promising future research avenues for the study of kin recognition in protists…

Yes, we do suggest in the book some directions in which the field of kin discrimination/recognition could venture in the immediate and longer-term future, particularly now that unicellular organisms have been incorporated into research programs worldwide. We state, for example, that “…despite the academic progress made during the past two decades, the field of kin recognition in protists and other microbes is just getting started. For the immediate future, we predict a significant increase in studies on the genetics, evolution, behavior and health aspects of the cell-to-cell molecular mechanisms of communication, cooperation, facultative or permanent multicellular aggregations, as well as mathematical modeling on high-complexity organismal systems, and their interactions, for which microbes will generate the data central to the simulations.”

Jo makes a fair observation:

…As a grain of salt, I would have loved to see some more terminological strictness at some occasions. The field of kin recognition is full of semantic debates, often leading to confusion whenever researchers from different backgrounds come together. The same is also true for the concept of learning. Defining clear terms before opening the discussion would have been helpful to the reader, even if not everybody may agree on the definition itself. The authors acknowledge this mess of concepts and try to avoid the debate by using very broad definitions, which I agree are inclusive, but may be too broad to be useful at the same time. However, these are very minor shortcomings that reflect current debates in the field and do not diminish the scientific and scholarly value of this great book, which I can highly recommend.

Yes, as we noted in the book “…the field of kin recognition, has no consensus on definitions or proposed mechanisms, likely due to the vast diversity and complexity of life histories across organisms, and also because researchers use terminology depending on circumstances or preference…” We deliberately avoided the discussion of terms and the way they have been used by specialists in the field, a debate that goes back decades, and a topic that might require a separate review for comprehensive coverage. Terminology guides us and is central to scientific inquiry; but it can, occasionally, drag us back and prevent us from making progress, or even accepting the obvious, like “learning abilities” in microbes, which continue to be skeptically honored by scholars due to the customary deference for “high-cognition learning in humans” versus the “learning-like mechanisms” in other organisms. Research with microbes suggests that learning is ubiquitous in nature and that “unicells” sense stimuli coming from the environment, selectively react to chemosignals excreted by themselves or others, store information about such signals and retrieve it when needed (although, in our book we linked “potential learning” primarily to protists’ recognition/discrimination of close genetic relatives, kin).

In sum, Avelina and I thank Jo Frommen for his attentive and positive review of “Kin Recognition in Protists and Other Microbes: Genetics, Evolution, Behavior and Health.” ‒ EvoLiteracy © 2019

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Related Readings

Other Reviews of Kin Recognition in Protists and Other Microbes

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Exploring beautiful New Zealand

“New Zealand deserves many visits to be fully explored; its beauty and richness of landscape seem endless. The intensity of colors like the deep blue of the sky or the fresh green of the vegetation can only be experienced in the flesh, no other way is possible.”

By Guillermo Paz-y-Miño-C

In our quest to explore islands, Avelina and I visited New Zealand during the first three weeks of January, 2019. We are compiling information about biodiversity, human development, and the future of island environments in response to global phenomena, e.g. population growth or climate change. So far, we have been to New Zealand, Hawai’i, the Galapagos, Jamaica and Sicily. Here are the images of our latest journey to the North Island of New Zealand (in no particular order). Enjoy the ride…

Above: the emblematic Pukeko… Western Springs Lakeside Park, Auckland

Above: the three kiwi species (diorama) at the Otorohanga Kiwi House (Native Bird Park) – We did get to see kiwis in captivity (night enclosure, no photos allowed – good)

Above: sheep – At the town of Tirau, New Zealand – “The Corrugated -Iron Capital of the World”

Above: we found this Tuatara (endemic to New Zealand) on the ground at the Otorohanga Kiwi House facilities. – We could not get closer than 3-m (9-ft) to take the photos; it was dark and with vegetation around (blocking our view). We managed to find an opening from which to take some shots

Above: imposing vegetation… and the Tasman Sea

Above: Kiwis crossing… be alert – via Waipoua

Above: exploration summary – 4300 km of driving (2670 mi) in the North Island; 309,550 walking steps while visiting Auckland (i.e. according to our wrist-portable step-counter), nearby and distant cities/towns, their museums and monuments, national parks and protected areas (in other words, about 155 km or 96 mi by foot)!

Above: Sometimes, this is all you need…

Above: …well, you also need this

Above: some good field guides

Above: Boston – Los Angeles (the first 6 hours)

Above: LA to Auckland (13 hours) – middle of the Pacific, through the polarized window of our “modern” plane. We could see the Sun outside (it looked like the moon), but it was “night” inside. Then, quickly, but gently, the “sunrise” effect was controlled from the cockpit to give us the illusion of arriving during the early morning

Above: again, driving on the right / wrong side

Above: antique Honda, well kept

Above: the first colors of New Zealand; the Whenuakite Kiwi Sanctuary – [btw these are the real colors]

Above: Trail at the Kauri-Tree forest in Waipoua

Above: the Albert Park Band Rotunda in Auckland

Above: at the Albert Park, downtown Auckland

Above: at the Albert Park, downtown Auckland

Above: Albion Printing Press from 1863, General Library, University of Auckland

Above: Alligator hiding “behind” duckweed…

Above: And another take of alligator hiding “behind” duckweed…

Above: a take of the beautiful “island of green” in the middle of the Auckland downtown; a vegetation patch with six old, very old imposing trees and their branches; each creature looks like a giant octopus..

Above: anti-earthquake building (hopefully), downtown Auckland

Above: we visited the spectacular Aranui Cave in Waitomo, about two hours South of Auckland. We also entered the Glowworm Caves, which were spectacular as well, but no photos were allowed in there (good policy). In any event, here is a series of seven images taken in the Aranui Cave (where photos were allowed), choose your favorite.

Above: at the spectacular Aranui Cave in Waitomo

Above: at the spectacular Aranui Cave in Waitomo

Above: at the spectacular Aranui Cave in Waitomo

Above: at the spectacular Aranui Cave in Waitomo

Above: at the spectacular Aranui Cave in Waitomo

Above:  this is a CLOSE UP, these stalactites are about 2-3 inches each, others a bit larger.

Above: corner view of the Auckland Art Gallery

Above: the main hall, Auckland Art Gallery

Above: Auckland from the summit of Mount Victoria

Above: Auckland, as seen from the Sky Tower

Above: Auckland… the moon, almost full

Above: B&W moments

Above: Auckland, New Zealand

Above: some time for a panoramic of the Auckland Museum [its actual name is Auckland War Memorial Museum, but the exhibits are not restricted to war or related memories; in fact, the most impressive aspect of the museum is its collection of Maori and Pacific artifacts, spectacular]

Above: Australasian gannet… one of thousands in a five-patch colony. Tasman Sea

Above: Australasian gannet, a bit mad

Above: Australasian gannet after attempting to approach its nest and mate, but too windy… another approach was necessary – Tasman Sea

Above: Quiet bamboo walk at the Chinese Garden, Hamilton Gardens

Above: Before the Rain… Wairoa River

Above: at the Albert Park, downtown Auckland

Above: We managed to get 11 different postcards with illustrations (antiques) depicting the birds of the Tongariro National Park

Above: Black Swan in B&W, Western Springs Lakeside Park, Auckland

Above: an elegant Black Swan at the Western Springs Lakeside Park, Auckland

Above: we found these black swans at Lake Taupō… male and female. They had five offspring with them, almost adult size; the parents were ready to defend them (i.e. charge) if anybody got too close…

Above: close up (color) of the Sky Tower in Auckland

Above: a view of the Bream Head [little peninsula in the back] from nearby Ruakaka, Highway 1 North; about an hour and a half from Auckland – BTW natural colors; the NZ sky is that blue and the landscape that green. – NZ is beautiful

Above: this was not our transportation – “The Dome” – Dome Forest Conservation Area

Above: this was our transportation — every time we rent a car, they give us a bright color one. This time was red. Last time (in Vancouver), a bright blue large truck almost impossible to park. In any event, can you spot the rooster and the hen? There are somewhere in the photo. Highway 1 North, an hour away from Auckland

Above: North Island, New Zealand… sheep skins inside (???)

Above: the youthful looking campus of the University of Auckland

Above: Chinese Pagoda at the Hamilton Gardens

Above: How many? – Australasian gannets, a huge colony. Tasman sea

Above: The colors of New Zealand, North Island, nearby Te Rerenga [btw these are the real colors]

Above: “Dogs [that roam] Kill Our Kiwi”

Above: How do I look, asked the gosling. Zoom in to see the gloom. Western Springs Lakeside Park, Auckland

Above: an overused dynosphere, Sky Tower, Auckland

Above: the Auckland Art Gallery

Above: we found this imposing feral rooster nearby Warkworth. We drove North and reached Waitangi, about 230 km / 143 mi (x2) from Auckland

Above: feral roosters (chickens) are quite common in all New Zealand

Above: some “large birds”, Auckland Zoo

Above: we got ourselves these beautiful field-notes-books and a portable guide of NZ birds and mammals illustrated by Lloyd Esler. What makes the latter special is the sketchy, yet accurate depiction of the species

Above: Hamilton Gardens, in the city of Hamilton

Above: Colony of Australasian gannets on top… one is taking off. Tasman Sea

Above: Australasian gannets flying over the Tasman Sea

Above: the General Library, University of Auckland

Above: inside the General Library, University of Auckland

Above: Zero Tolerance… posted at the entrance to the General Library, University of Auckland

Above: muddy giant tortoise, Auckland Zoo

Above: another muddy giant tortoise, Auckland Zoo

Above: The day ended at a breezy Rotorua Lake

Above: Warm afternoon… Tongariro National Park, North Island

Above: Hamadryas feeding and grooming together… Auckland Zoo

Above: the “harbor building” in Auckland is quite nice, but the street on front of it was under renovation and made it difficult to take a good shot

Above: at the Albert Park, downtown Auckland

Above: Hinana, Auckland Museum

Above: Hotunui, ceremonial, saturation of beauty… Maori and Pacific Island cultures… Auckland Museum

Above: Immense landscape, Tasman Sea

Above: Indian Char Bagh, Hamilton Gardens

Above: The Italian Renaissance Garden at the Hamilton Gardens

Above: Juvenile Hamadryas, Auckland Zoo

Above: Kakapo and Pukeko, street painting, Auckland

Above: Katherine Mansfield’s Coronoa typewriter, with the text of “The Garden Party” – Waikato Museum. – The typewriter is quite small, about 30-cm / 12-in wide (front view); very well preserved

Above: Kauri tree, 7-m diameter, Waipoua Forest – we drove 460 km (286 mi) to the Waipoua Kauri Forest, Northwest part of the North Island. It took us four hours (one way) from Auckland to get to the site. Our purpose was to see the gigantic Kauri trees (in the genus Agathis). We did find them. Impressive, enormous (the largest diameter 6-m / 18 ft), majestic

Above: Kauri Tree (smaller), Waipoua Forest

Above: Kauri trees, the “Four Sisters,” Waipoua Forest

Above: Another take of Kauri trees, the “Four Sisters,” Waipoua Forest

Above: Kawakawa, North Island

Above: Kiwi, Auckland Museum

Above: Kiwi Cross, Mount Raupehu, Tongariro

 

Above: we visited the town of Otorohanga (2:30 hours South of Auckland), searching for Kiwis; this is what we found

Above: Lake Taupo, Tongariro National Park

Above: Male Hamadryas, Auckland Zoo

Above: At the Mansfield Garden, Hamilton Gardens – antique and antique colors

Above: Maori Warriors’ Canoes; the one on the left is for 100 people – Waitangi Treaty Grounds & Museum

Above: Maori carving, Rotorua Gyser Museum

Above: Maori statue, Auckland Museum

Above: Maori statue, Auckland Museum

Above: this Masked Lapwing was simply hanging around at the Otorohanga Kiwi House, looking for free meals

Above: Modern Auckland; one of its metro stations (Britomart). Lots of colors

Above: we spotted this “New Zealand Christmas Tree” (quite common btw). It belongs to the genus Metrosideros. – Can you spot the bees? How many?

Above: a giant mirror, “Light Weight O” by Catherine Griffiths (2018), reflecting O’Connell Street in Auckland

Above: Moss, Waipoua Kauri Forest

Above: a center-view of the Mount Eden crater, Auckland

Above: a side-view of the Mount Eden crater, Auckland

Above: Mount Ngauruhoe Tongariro National Park

Above: Mount Raupehu, Tongariro National Park

Above: mud pool at the moment of boiling; spot the drop – Te Puia

Above: Nga Pou or Rangitihi, Auckland Museum – the Maori Court Central is impressive; the collection of artifacts, spectacular

Above: Nyala eating with style, Auckland Zoo

Above: After trying to photograph the Tuatara (image at the beginning of post) under challenging conditions, we felt the presence of the New Zealand Pigeon from above. It was a wet-yet-semi solid sensation; honorable, since it came from an endemic bird, unique to the Continent of Zelandia. The Pigeon is the size of a hen, imagine the rest

Above: this flat image looks like a painting, but it is not. It corresponds to the endemic and endangered New Zealand Pigeon (quite big, up to 20 in / 50 cm). We found it at the Otorohanga Kiwi House

Above: a cute boat at Opua North Island

 

Above: another panoramic of the Auckland Museum [its actual name is Auckland War Memorial Museum, but the exhibits are not restricted to war or related memories; in fact, the most impressive aspect of the museum is its collection of Maori and Pacific artifacts, spectacular]

Above: We found these pheasants (M/F) foraging nearby the town of Taupō, North Island, New Zealand [introduced species, of course] – suboptimal to get a shot; they were moving; coming in and out of the bushes; close, but not together to get a single photo; alert, but mostly ignoring us; the male did his usual singing and wing flapping… nature continued

Above: The Pōhutu geyser in Te Puia, New Zealand – It erupts about 30-m (once-twice per hour)

Above: another view of Pohutu geyser, Te Puia

Above:  Pukeko series, Western Springs Lakeside Park, Auckland

Above: Pukeko posing – Pukeko series, Western Springs Lakeside Park, Auckland

Above: …and another Pukeko – Pukeko series, Western Springs Lakeside Park, Auckland

Above: Purple Flower Tree, Waikato

Above: Quiet, pretending to not be seen – Western Springs Lakeside Park, Auckland

Above: Rhino and Nyala at the Auckland Zoo

Above:  Richard Owen and Moa skeleton at the Auckland Museum

Above: Sauropod and Theropod dinosaurs at the Auckland Museum

Above: “Rock Drop” by Judy Millard at the Auckland Art Gallery. Immense, yet beautiful. – The AAG is a world class building with a large collection of paintings and sculptures, particularly modern art, Kiwi style

Above: The colorful Rotorua Museum

Above: Sky Tower, downtown Auckland

Above: downtown / harbor Auckland

Above: more of the downtown, Auckland, 10 PM

Above: Southern Black-backed Gull, Auckland harbor

Above: Summit of Mount Victoria, Auckland

Above: it took us five days to find the right restaurant, Tanpopo Ramen, downtown Auckland – complex flavors in simple noodle soups, mixed with vegetables, some pork, seaweeds, ginger, soy sauce, and even corn. Finally, after some intense searching

Above: the iconic Clock Tower at the University of Auckland

Above: “take two” of the iconic Clock Tower at the University of Auckland

Above: “the insights” of the Clock Tower at the University of Auckland – a fantastic piece of architecture (finished in the 1920s); beautiful inside, with many corners and turns, stairs, arcs, pillars; symmetry and color

Above: close up of the top, Clock Tower at the University of Auckland

Above: even closer up of the top, Clock Tower at the University of Auckland

Above: The Cloud, downtown Auckland

Above: The Essence of a Tree – found at the Albert Park in downtown Auckland

Above: The Huia, male (left) and female (right). Now extinct, the bird was common in the North Island of New Zealand. There are some unconfirmed reports of its existence. – We found this beautiful art (about 3×5 meters; 9×15 ft) in the streets of Auckland

Above: The Spitfire TE456 cf 1948, Auckland Museum

Above: biologists will appreciate… Nearby the town of Maramarua

Above: Three muddy Giant Tortoises, Auckland Zoo

Above: Tivaevae manu, tataura, quilt – Cook Islands, Auckland Museum

Above: Jesus – At the town of Tirau, New Zealand – “The Corrugated -Iron Capital of the World”

Above: at the Town of Tirau, Pig

Above: Trail to the Kauri-Tree forest in Waipoua

Above: a detail in B&W at Mount Victoria, Auckland

Above: a “black bird”, Turdus merula, Mount Eden, Auckland

Above: at Waikawau, when we just reached 4000 km of driving in the North Island of New Zealand

Above: Waikino Bridge & Village

Above: the beautiful Wāitukei sculpture in Rotorua

Above: WWI Monument, Thames

Above: “Whol Why Wurld” (2017) by Jess Johnson & Simon Ward, Auckland Art Gallery – Quite modern, attractive, plus the computer animations were so pleasant to watch. Soft music created a micro-atmosphere of calmness

Above: a shiny young Hamadryas… Auckland Zoo. Primates always remind us that wild animals belong in the wild

Above: White Rhino, the end

Above: last day of the journey — Our trilogy in the Continent of Zelandia; the Tasman Sea as seen from the North Island of New Zealand – one of our last images… time to fly North, back home

Above: Back in Boston… 4-F or ‒15-C… It took us 40-min to defrost the car

New Zealand deserves many visits to be fully explored; its beauty and richness of landscape seem endless. The intensity of colors like the deep blue of the sky or the fresh green of the vegetation can only be experienced in the flesh, no other way is possible. — EvoLiteracy © 2019.

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